Intelligent Security System
- Lighting: One of the most basic (and cheapest) components of a security system. Carefully designed and coordinated interior and exterior lighting systems can exert a significant deterrent effect.
- Perimeter control: Includes elements such as fences, walls, and landscaped berms that protect a facility’s potential access ways.
- Access control: Includes the immense variety of card-readers, chip-readers, and electronic locks that read information encoded on the cards, disks, or keys carried by employees. Popular systems incorporate insertion- or swipe-readers that interpret magnetic-stripe cards, or proximity-readers that do not require physical contact with the cards they read. Other components are the software for managing the distribution and encoding of cards and the processing of transactions, as well as the strikes, contacts, and releases that operate doors. Some more sophisticated systems incorporate biometric devices based on fingerprints, voiceprints, retinal patterns and the like. to allow or forbid access to restricted areas .
- Pedestrian traffic control: Closely related to access control, covers devices such as electronic turnstiles equipped with card-readers. Banks of turnstiles often include larger gateways, also equipped with card readers, for wheelchair access. Vehicular traffic and parking control components also often play a role in facility security.
- Intrusion detection: Includes the many types of sensors and alarm systems now available. Infrared motion sensors can be ceiling- or wall-mounted; although such detectors are mostly used to protect interior spaces, there are motion detectors available for exterior use. Other devices detect the shattering of glass , or the opening of windows and doors . Video motion detectors that detect movement on video signals transmitted from closed-circuit TV (CCTV) cameras are also available.
- Monitoring and surveillance: Includes CCTV cameras and the monitors and security command centers they serve. Infrared cameras now on the market are capable of producing high-quality images in complete darkness. Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) devices permit the remote control of CCTV cameras; video switchers allow multiple cameras to display on a single monitor; time-lapse VCRs are capable of condensing nearly a thousand hours of continuous monitoring onto a single, 120-minute VHS tape. The monitoring of an entire security system is often performed from a single command center , or nerve center. In modern integrated systems, all security system information is carried over a single fiber optic-cable infrastructure also capable of carrying other building control systems.
Integrated Building Management Systems (IBMS)
Known under many names and acronyms, Building Management Systems (BMS), Factory Automation Systems (FAS), Building Automation Systems (BAS), Digital Control Systems (DCS) and Facilities Management System (FMS). are all part of a large family of applications called System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). SCADA systems are designed for integrated monitoring and control of equipment, generally in a Building , factory or plant environment, and enable users to gather pertinent information about systems and then make appropriate intelligent operational control changes. SCADA is the name generally adopted for larger Industrial Automation Systems.
Building Management Systems are comprised of configurable intelligent controllers networked together to provide control for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and other building services. Measurements from sensors and switches are processed through the intelligent controllers, which then control output devices such as valves and actuators. The system is viewed through a ‘supervisor’ or PC running building management software. This software is used to adjust control parameters as well as perform a wide range of energy analysis and maintenance functions.
Intelligence is incorporated in an intelligent Building for reduction of energy use to the bare minimum. Computerized BMS systems are used extensively. Such systems go by many names: Energy Management System (EMS), Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS).